Joaquín Torres García (28 July 1874 – 8 August 1949), was a Uruguayan plastic artist and art theorist, also known as the founder of Constructive Universalism. In 1978, most of his works were destroyed in a fire that broke out in the Museum of Modern Art in Rio de Janeiro, while a large exhibition of the artist’s works was being held.
“This is a famous illustration of South America by the Uruguayan modernist Joaquín Torres-García, often called the Upside-down Map (1943). This may have been one of the first of these kinds of maps.
This illustration became a centerpiece in the history of Latin American efforts at reclaiming themselves in a world vision. Torres-García placed the South Pole at the top of the earth, thereby suggesting a visual affirmation of the importance of the continent, and in an effort to present a pure revision of the world. He was also interested in presenting to the world a modern “school of the south,” a place of experimentation that could rival what was happening in Paris or New York.”